A world-revision of Arthraxon Beauv. ( Gramineae) is presented. Three wide-spread species, A. hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, A. lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst., and A. lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst. are very variable and have caused the description of a great number of taxa, most of which are here reduced to synonomy. There are now 7 species and 9 varieties; for 6 of the latter new combinations are proposed. No new taxa are described.