The description of the volcanoes in the former Netherlands East Indies are analysed in order of their publication, grouping them into three parts. The first group consists of information from old Javanese sources and incidental communications in travel accounts and the like, dating from the 16th, 17th and 18th century. The second group includes scientific reports from the 19th century and the last part deals with the organised volcanological research after 1900 until the Indonesian Independence. This last part not only lists the volcanoes going from west to east but also discusses several special topics that were studied, e.g. temperatures in the crater region, sulphur in Indonesia and the caldera problem. Each chapter begins with some historical notes, including biographic details of the scientists that carried out the volcanological research. A list of active volcanoes in Indonesia, including fumarole and solfatare fields, is given and also an exhaustive bibliography.