The name ‘Jambi flora’ refers to fossil plants found as part of a rock formation from the Early Permian (296 million years old), located in the Jambi Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. The flora is characterized by the occurrence of both plant groups known from classic coal swamp floras, established for tens of millions of years, as well as newly emerging groups that in a number of cases are making their first known occurrence there and would play an important role in the vegetations of the Permian era. The latter are part of distinct associations with an ecology different and generally drier than that of the swamp flora species. The large amount of fossil wood collected from the Jambi region allowed for a quantitative analysis larger than anything undertaken before for this early gymnosperm wood type. Although more than 250 different species have been described worldwide for this fossil wood type in the past, the results from a morphological analysis of the Jambi material shows it to be a coherent whole wherein no individual species can be discerned. This throws great doubt on whether it is even possible to distinguish traditional species in this wood type.