Phialophora as defined by its type species P. verrucosa is a genus of Chaetothyriales, and a member of the group known as ‘black yeasts and relatives’. Phialophora verrucosa has been reported from mutilating human infections such as chromoblastomycosis, disseminated phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma, while morphologically similar fungi are rather commonly isolated from the environment. Phenotypes are insufficient for correct species identification, and molecular data have revealed significant genetic variation within the complex of species currently identified as P. verrucosa or P. americana. Multilocus analysis of 118 strains revealed the existence of five reproductively isolated species apparently having different infectious potentials. Strains of the sexual morph Capronia semiimmersa cluster within P. americana. The newly defined taxa differ markedly in their predilection for the human host.

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Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi

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Li, Y., Xiao, J., de Hoog, G. S., Wang, X., Wan, Z., Yu, J., … Li, R. (2017). Biodiversity and human-pathogenicity of Phialophora verrucosa and relatives in Chaetothyriales. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 38, 1–19. doi:10.3767/003158517X692779