Larvae of Phyllocnistis unipunctella (Stephens) mining the upperside and underside of leaves of Populus spp. were compared in terms of gross morphology and the COI DNA barcoding section of mitochondrial DNA. It was discovered that larvae feeding on the underside did not show the dark pigmentation of the prothoracic plate as described in the literature. Larvae were found feeding two months earlier than normal and at least one extra generation was observed. More work isrequired to determine the possibility ofspeciation.

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The Entomologist's record and journal of variation
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Jordan, M. P., Langmaid, J. R., & Doorenweerd, C. (2016). Morphological difference between upperside and underside leaf-mining larvae of Phyllocnistis Unipunctella (Stephens, 1834) (Lep. Gracillariidae) and its changing phenology. The Entomologist's record and journal of variation, 128, 121–127.