An extensive molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of the suborder Zygoptera of the Odonata is presented, based on mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear (28S) data of 59% of the 310 genera recognized and all (suspected) families except the monotypic Hemiphlebiidae. A partial reclassification is proposed, incorporating morphological characters. Many traditional families are recovered as monophyletic, but reorganization of the superfamily Coenagrionoidea into three families is proposed: Isostictidae, Platycnemididae and Coenagrionidae. Archboldargia Lieftinck, Hylaeargia Lieftinck, Palaiargia Forster, ¨ Papuargia Lieftinck and Onychargia Selys are transferred from Coenagrionidae to Platycnemididae, and Leptocnemis Selys, Oreocnemis Pinhey and Thaumatagrion Lieftinck from Platycnemididae to Coenagrionidae. Each geographically well-defined clade of Platycnemididae is recognized as a subfamily, and thus Disparoneurinae (i.e. Old World ‘Protoneuridae’) is incorporated, Calicnemiinae is restricted, and Allocnemidinae (type genus: Allocnemis Selys) subfam.n., Idiocnemidinae (type genus: Idiocnemis Selys) subfam.n. and Onychargiinae (type genus: Onychargia Selys) subfam.n. and Coperini trib.n. (type genus: Copera Kirby) are described. Half of Coenagrionidae belongs to a well-supported clade incorporating Coenagrion Kirby and the potential subfamilies Agriocnemidinae, Ischnurinae and Pseudagrioninae. The remainder is less well defined, but includes the Pseudostigmatidae and New World Protoneuridae that, with Argiinae and Teinobasinae, may prove valid subfamilies with further evidence. Ninety-two per cent of the genera formerly included in the polyphyletic Amphipterygidae and Megapodagrionidae were studied. Pentaphlebiidae, Rimanellidae and Devadattidae fam.n. (type genus: Devadatta Kirby) are separated from Amphipterygidae, and Argiolestidae, Heteragrionidae, Hypolestidae, Philogeniidae, Philosinidae and Thaumatoneuridae from Megapodagrionidae. Eight further groups formerly placed in the latter are identified, but are retained as incertae sedis; the validity of Lestoideidae, Philogangidae and Pseudolestidae is confirmed. For some families (e.g. Calopterygidae, Chlorocyphidae) a further subdivision is possible; Protostictinae subfam.n. (type genus: Protosticta Selys) is introduced in Platystictidae. Numerous new combinations are proposed in the Supporting Information. Many long-established families lack strong morphological apomorphies. In particular, venation is incongruent with molecular results, stressing the need to review fossil Odonata taxonomy: once defined by the reduction of the anal vein, Protoneuridae dissolves completely into six clades from five families.

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Systematic Entomology
Staff publications

Dijkstra, K.-D. B., Kalkman, V., Dow, R. A., Stokvis, F. R., & van Tol, J. (2014). Redefining the damselfly families: a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Zygoptera (Odonata). Systematic Entomology, 39, 68–96. doi:10.1111/syen.12035