The family Lecythidaceae is pantropical with 24 genera subdivided into five subfamilies, confirmed by molecular work. Only subfamily Barringtonioideae occurs in the Malesian region represented by five genera, Barringtonia (61 species), Planchonia (7 species), Careya, Chydenanthus and Petersianthus with one species each of which wood, chemistry and pollen are discussed in a general way. The family, genera and species are described and the species treatments contain descriptions, drawings, keys, distribution maps, local names and notes on habitat ecology and uses.