The neotropical genus Fusispermum (actinomorphous Violaceae) contains two species in northern South America (Peru, Colombia) and a third species F. laxiflorum Hekking sp. nov. from Panama. The genus differs from two subfamilies Violoideae and Leonoideae of the Violaceae as distinguished by Melchior, by its convolute aestivation of the petals, its deviating androecium and its capsula containing two different kinds of seeds and is therefore placed in a subfamily of its own, Fusispermoideae Hekking subfam. nov. A key to the neotropical actinomorphous genera of Violaceae is provided.