Recent taxonomic studies on the Lejeuneaceae subfamily Ptychanthoideae indicate that there are 59 species in 21 genera in Latin America. The ptychanthoid flora is very different from that of the Old World and has much fewer species but is slightly richer in endemic genera. About one third of the species are widespread neotropical elements, eleven species are transoceanicwide tropical, and the remaining species have more restricted distributions and belong to the endemic, Caribbean, Amazonian or Andean element. Data on sex distribution in the species indicate that bisexuality in Ptychanthoideae is much more common than previously assumed. The biogeography of the transoceanic species is briefly discussed.