Anaxagorea A. St. Hil. is distinct from other Annonaceae by the fruits. Unlike most members of the family, it occurs both in the Neotropics and in the Palaeotropics. Several chapters are devoted to a.o. morphology, anatomy, karyology, palynology, chemistry, pollination and seed dispersal, geography and ecology, economic uses and vernacular names, partly compiled from existing literature or collectors’ notes, partly as a result of own investigations. A cladistic analysis of intrageneric relationships is given. The taxonomic part provides descriptions, synonyms (nomina nuda are not included), dichotomous keys. For practical reasons, separate keys are given for neotropical and palaeotropical taxa. For neotropical species, a synoptic key is also provided. Altogether, 20 neotropical species and 3 palaeotropical species (including 2 varieties) are recognized, and 14 taxa are brought into synonymy. Another two taxa from the Neotropics are apparently new, but are not formally published because of incomplete material, and one palaeotropical species cannot be properly evaluated because of insufficient material. An index to exsiccata is appended.