A syntaxonomic survey is given from the heathland communities in the Netherlands. The almost natural heathlands on coastal dunes belong to the Carici arenariae – Empetretum (Empetrion nigri) from dry or humid habitat and to the Empetro – Ericetum (Ericion tetralicis) from wet dune valleys. The antropogenous inland heaths belong to the Ericetum tetralicis (Ericion tetralicis) on wet peaty soils and to the Genisto – Callunetum and Vaccinio-Callunetum (Calluno-Genistion pilesoe) on humid to dry sandy soils. The latter association is confined to hilly districts with high precipitation. Ten new subassociations are described.