In plots B1, 2, and 4 in 1978 only a single species once covered over 12.5% of the surface: Leontodon hispidus. A few species covered sometimes about 5-10%, like Briza media, Triselum flavescens, Lotus corniculatus, Leontodon hispidus, and Knautia arvensis. In the course of the study the occasional dominance of certain species disappeared (Table 2). Most species covered less than 5%, but the number of individuals often fluctuated strongly from one species to another. In plots B3 and B5 a much stronger dominance could be observed than in the non-fertilized plots (Fig. 5). In 1978 the grasses Festuca rubra and Dactylis glomerata covered from 10—40% of the surface, the coverage of other species, particularly forbs, amounting to less than 1%, e.g., Ononis repens, Plantago lanceolata, Ranunculus acris, and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. A few constantly present forbs, initially covering about 25%, like Centaurea pratensis and Lathyrus pratensis in plot B5 did not keep up this high coverage. This also holds for forbs that established themselves in the fertilized plots after a few years and attained a rather high coverage, like Heracleum sphondylium in plot B3.

Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht

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Naturalis journals & series

Willems, J. H. (1980). Observations on north-west European limestone grassland communities. V, b. An experimental approach to the study of species diversity and above-ground biomass in chalk grassland. Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, 506(1), 296–306.