This publication is intended to be the first part of a taxonomic monograph of the family Vochysiaceae and deals with the genera Salvertia and Vochysia. Since Warming’s excellent treatise of the Brazilian species of this family in the Flora Brasiliensis (Vol. XIII, II,1875) a large number of new species has been described, especially from neighbouring countries, and much new material has been collected. The fact that the number of species of Vochysia has been doubled since Warming may give a raison d’être to this monograph. A large quantity of material was kindly put at my disposal by several herbaria. These herbaria are indicated in this monograph by the following abbreviations proposed by the Standing Committee for Urgent Taxonomic needs of the International Botanic Congresses for the planned Index Herbariorum.