The taxonomic position of some Australian Ruelliinae and Justiciinae is discussed. In Dipteracanthus two new combinations are proposed, viz. D. primulaceus (F. v. Müll, ex Bth.) Brem. and D. corynothecus (F. v. Mül, ex Bth.) Brem., both originally described in Ruellia, and one new species and one new variety are described, viz. D. sessiliflorus Brem. and D. corynothecus (F. v. Müll, ex Bth.) Brem. var. grandiflorus Brem. The Australian specimens that hitherto have been referred to Justicia procumbens L (= Rostellularia procumbens (L) Nees) will have to be referred to various other Rostellularia species. Justicia kempeana F. v. Müll, is removed to a new genus Sarojusticia, which necessitates the new combination S. kempeana (F. v. Müll) Brem.