The Mountain Elevation Effect
Flora Malesiana Bulletin , Volume 23 - Issue 1 p. 1700- 1700
For the Javanese mountain plants, all growing on separated volcanic peaks, it has been found before that to grow on a mountain there is for each species a critical altitude necessary of the total height (elevation) of the peak or mountaincomplex. This is best elucidated by an example: Albizia lophantha (montana) is found in Java from 1100-3100 m, but only on mountains of which the summit reaches at least 2500 m altitude. This means that it is not found on mountains of 2400 m summit height or lower, although it may descend on mountains of 2500 m summit height and higher as low down as 1100 m altitude. The elevation effect is calculated in this case as 2500 minus 1100 = 1400 m.
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van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (1969). The Mountain Elevation Effect. Flora Malesiana Bulletin, 23(1), 1700–1700.