The Malayan Nature Society (MNS), a non-governmental organisation with about 3,000 members, has since its formation in 1940 always had a strong emphasis on conservation. The Society’s objective in mounting this expedition, a mammoth undertaking for any Society as it included raising funds to a tune of almost M $ 400,000 (about £ 80, 000), were several: 1. To gain permanent legal protection for the only area in Malaysia where there still is a viable population (estimated at between 20 and 25 animals) of the rare Sumatran rhinoceros. 2. To gain legal protection for one of the few remaining extensive areas of lowland forest left in the Southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. 3. To explore the area and to document the flora and fauna of this Southern forest type, which until then was relatively poorly known scientifically. 4. To increase the awareness among school children and the general public of the beauty and value of Malaysia’s natural heritage.