Davalliaceae Mett. ex Frank in Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenk., ed. 2, 3 (1877) 1474; K.U. Kramer in K. Kubitzki (ed.), Fam. & Gen. Vasc. PI. 1 (1990) 74—80. Epiphytic, epilithic, or rarely terrestrial. Rhizome dorsiventral, scaly with extra-axillary buds near the leaves, creeping, usually long (short in Gymnogrammitis, not in Malesia) and densely covered with scales (and often also hairs in Leucostegia). Leaves alternately in two ranks on the dorsal side of the rhizome and articulated at the base to phyllopodia. Extra-axillary buds alternately in two ranks on the ventral-lateral sides of the rhizome; each bud intermediate between two succeeding phyllopodia in Leucostegia and in Gymnogrammitis, lateral to the phyllopodium or lower lateral and slightly anterior in the other genera. Roots on the ventral side of lateral buds, in Leucostegia scattered on all sides of the rhizome, in Gymnogrammitis along the entire ventral side of it. The vascular structure of the rhizome a dorsiventral dictyostele. Stele with a thick dorsal and a thick ventral vascular strand, in Gymnogrammitis only a thick dorsal strand. In Leucostegia the dorsiventral dictyostele with elongate leaf gaps with two simple leaf traces, in all other taxa many leaf traces for a leaf arising from the dorsal and ventral strands and from a strand connecting the two, the traces finely anastomosing in each leaf gap, the connecting strands thin and obscure. In Leucostegia scales basifixed with broad bases attached to the rhizome, often with hairs on the rhizome or on the base of the scales. In the other genera the rhizome scales peltate or basally attached with a cordate, overlapping, base (sometimes called pseudopeltate). The scales acicular, flat and nearly acicular, evenly narrowed towards the apex above the much broader base, or just evenly narrowed. In a number of species apical and marginal multicellular hairs on the scales. Scales often ciliate or toothed, the ciliae or teeth consisting of two upturned ends of adjacent marginal cells.