Trees, shrubs, woody climbers, or herbs. Hairs simple, stellate, or glandularcapitate; colleters often present in the axils of the leaves, stipules, and sepals (among Mal. genera absent in Buddleja only). Leaves nearly always opposite, entire or nearly so, penninerved, rarely 3-7-plinerved (Strychnos) or curvinerved (Mitrasacme); ; stipules interpetiolar (in many genera reduced to a stipular line) in some genera moreover intrapetiolar. Flowers in cymose to thyrsiform (rarely racemose or spicate) inflorescences or solitary, 5-(rarely 4-, in Anthocleista up to 16-)merous, nearly always bisexual, actinomorphic (in some genera slightly zygomorphic). Disk sometimes present (not in Mal. spp.). Sepals united or free. Corolla gamopetalous, very rare with a corona. Stamens isomerous in Mal. spp. in 2 extra-Mal. genera less), alternating, inserted on the corolla tube (with one exception in Buddleja), , included or exserted; anthers basifixed or sometimes slightly (in the Spigelieae), , slightly to deeply bifid at base, lengthwise dehiscent. Ovary superior (in Polypremum, Cynoctonum, and Mitrasacme p.p. semi-inferior), (1-)2(-4)-celled, placentas axile (parietal if 1-celled), often peltate; ovules l-~ per cell, amphitropous or anatropous; style usually one. Fruit always superior, capsular, baccate, or drupaceous. Seeds 1-~, with copious endosperm; embryo minute straight, cotyledons small. Distribution. About 28 genera with some 600 spp., almost confined to the tropics of both eastern and Western hemispheres, a few genera extending to the warm-temperate regions, mainly towards the south. In Malaysia 11 genera with 80 spp.