The author regards the Cyphellaceae as an artificial family. He redefines it for practical purposes, suggesting the gradual removal of those elements that show relationship with other groups; several elements are referable to the Corticiaceae or the agarics. A list of the ‘cyphellaceous’ generic names tentatively included is given. The genera to be excluded from the family as defined are briefly discussed. The same applies to a long series of specific names that had or have been included. A historic chapter reviews some important developments in regard with some of the older genera, Solenia, Cyphella, Aleurodiscus, as well as the rise of the family. Some species are transferred to Aleurodiscus Rab. ex J. Schroet.; Cytidia Quél. is redefined and Auriculariopsis Maire excluded from it. Other genera reviewed and redefined are Stromatoscypha Donk [Porotheleum (Fr. per Fr.) Fr.], Chromocyphella De Toni & Levi Phaeocyphella Pat.], and Lachnella Fr. Two new monotypic genera are introduced, Cellypha Donk and Pellidiscus Donk. One or more species of the redefined and new genera are discussed. The name Mycena sect. Hirsutae (Kühner) ex Donk is validly published. Several specific names are reduced to the synonymy of other species for the first time. Several types of names published by Persoon and by von Albertini & von Schweinitz were studied. New combinations are made under Hymenochaete Lév. (1), Favolaschia (Pat.) Pat. (1), Aleurodiscus (2), Cellypha (1), Pellidiscus (1), Chromocyphella (1).