Original material of taxa of Russula sect. Xerampelinae with a mainly olivaceous pileus are compared with selected specimens. It is demonstrated that Russula clavipes, thought to be associated exclusively with conifers, may also occur with deciduous trees and grows from the temperate lowlands to arctic areas. Nomenclature and taxonomic status of other names used for similar taxa in this group are discussed. Russula xerampelina var. elaeodes and R. nuoljae are treated as the only validly published synonyms of R. clavipes.