In this taxonomic revision of the genus Ascodesmis the monotypic family Ascodesmidaceae and the genus Ascodesmis are delimited and defined. Six species are recognized, described, and illustrated from living material and specimens preserved in herbaria. The typifications of the genus Ascodesmis and of the species A. nigricans, and A. sphaerospora are discussed without far-reaching consequences. Ascodesmis nana is described as new and the new name Ascobolus perforatus is proposed for Ascodesmis canina Jeng & Cain. A list of doubtful and excluded names is appended.