A new species and a new variety of Russula based on a number of annotated collections, photographs and field observations are described. Russula violaceoincarnata Knudsen & Borgen, spec. nov., presumably belongs in section Polychromae Maire and is associated with Betula and Salix in southwest Greenland. Russula claroflava var. viridis Knudsen & Borgen, var. nov., is associated with Betula and known from Greenland and Norway. Russula maculata Quél. ssp. alpina (Sing.) Knudsen & Borgen, stat. nov., is proposed and reported from Greenland, Svalbard and Siberia, and R. citrinochlora Sing. and R. consobrina Fr. are reported as new to Greenland.