The new species Gymnopilus arenophilus A. Ortega & Esteve-Rav. is described. It is characterized by its particular habitat in sandy, sometimes burned, soils of thermophilous Pinus forests. Macroscopically G. arenophilus resembles G. penetrans, from which it differs in the larger spores and the scarcely bitter taste. Microscopically G. arenophilus reminds of G. fulgens, with which it has probably been mistaken in the past. The latter species has very different macroscopical features, spore ornamentation and a paludicolous habitat. A discussion of European and some non-European related species is also given.