Imperfect states and the taxonomy of the Pezizales
Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi , Volume 6 - Issue 4 p. 405- 414
Certainly only a relatively few species of the Pezizales have been studied in culture. I hope that this paper will stimulate more efforts in this direction. A few patterns are emerging from those species that have been cultured and have produced conidia but more information is needed. Botryoblastospores ( Oedocephalum and Ostracoderma) are frequently found in cultures of Peziza and Iodophanus (Pezizaceae). Aleurospores are known in Peziza but also in other genera. Botrytis-like imperfect states are known in Trichophaea (Otidiaceae). Sympodulosporous imperfect states are known in several families (Sarcoscyphaceae, Sarcosomataceae, Aleuriaceae, Morchellaceae) embracing both suborders. Conoplea is definitely tied in with Urnula and Plectania, Nodulosporium with Geopyxis, and Costantinella with Morchella. Certain types of conidia are not presently known in the Pezizales. Phialospores, porospores, annellospores, blastospores and a few other types have not been reported. The absence of phialospores is of special interest since these are common in the Helotiales. The absence of conidia in certain groups, e. g. Helvellaceae and Theleboleaceae may also be of significance, and would aid in delimiting these taxa. At the species level critical comparison of imperfect states may help clarify taxonomic problems and supplement other data in distinguishing between closely related species. Peziza, Plectania and perhaps Sarcoscypha are examples of genera where such studies might prove valuable. One large group of the Pezizales in desparate need of study in culture are the tropical species. Very few of these appear to have been cultured. Undoubtedly some surprises are in store for mycologists who culture tropical forms. Species of Rhizoctonia may also yield pezizaceous apothecia, as the study of Whitney & Parmeter (1964) has shown. Such cultural studies are laborous but must be undertaken if we are to ever approach complete understanding of this group of fungi.
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Paden, J. W. (1972). Imperfect states and the taxonomy of the Pezizales. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 6(4), 405–414.