A key to the species and varieties of Flammulaster growing in the Netherlands and adjacent regions is given; each taxon is provided with a description and line drawings. Flammulaster limulatus var. litus is described as new. The following new combinations are made: F. carpophilus var. rhombosporus, F. carpophilus var. subincarnatus, F. limulatus var. novasilvensis and Galerina harrisonii. Problems concerning delimitation of the genus and its systematic position are briefly discussed.