A taxonomic revision of Scolopia, based on the collections most important for the genus. Of the names of the about 80 taxa previously described in the genus, 28 remained valid; for 2 species and 1 variety a new combination had to be made, 7 new species and 1 new variety were added, and 5 species had to be transferred to other genera. This resulted in a total of 37 species (and 2 varieties); of these, 21 species are found in Africa (15 of them in Madagascar, the Comores, and the Mascarenes), 15 in Southeast Asia and Malesia (incl. New Ireland), and 1 in Australia.