Lepisanthes in the broad sense accepted in the present revision comprises several genera and even two tribes as they were defined by Radlkofer in his Monograph of the family (Pfl. R. Heft 98). An argumentation for this new delimitation has been given in the first part of Chapter II. By analysing the phylogeny of a few characters, an effort has been made to make the mutual relationships within Lepisanthes more clear and to give a synthesis of it (Chapter II, parts 2 and 3). The taxonomie part proper is preceded by three chapters on resp. L. tetraphylla (Chapter III), L. fruticosa (Chapter IV), and L. senegalensis (Chapter V), the three most complex species. Though the treatment is somewhat different, all three chapters are intended to give a picture of the variable complex as a whole as well as an analysis of its elements and an argumentation in defence of the acceptance of such wide limits. The present revision of Lepisanthes is primarily intended as a precursor to the future treatment in the Flora Malesiana. For that reason the species are not all uniformly treated in the Taxonomic part (Chapter VI). The synonymy and typification are complete for all taxa; the genus and the infrageneric taxa are described in full, and the keys to the species are complete. Complete literature and descriptions are given for those species which are exclusively or mainly non-Malesian; in the case of new Malesian species only the Latin diagnosis based upon the type specimen has been given. Under all species or infraspecific taxa all specimens studied are cited except (1) when the number of collections was very large and many of these had already been cited by Radlkofer, either under the same name or under one or more synonyms, and (2) for those regions of which more than 5 collections were seen; in the latter case the number of collections studied has been mentioned. No index has been given to all collections seen; they will be included in a future issue of the Identification Lists of Malaysian Specimens on all Sapindaceae.