Herbals and herbaria for scientific purposes have been made from the 16th century. They were private property long before the time of the foundation of most institutional herbaria, in which they are now, as far as they are still intact, preserved. The oldest, when in book-form, are of course kept apart. Those mounted on loose sheets were treated in different ways and were subsequently incorporated and filed in the general herbarium, as for instance those of Van Royen at Leiden, Burman f. at Geneva, R. Brown at the British Museum and the Hooker and Bentham collections at Kew. In other instances they were kept apart and preserved as a separate unit, in view of the fact that they represented the authentic standard works of authorities, for example the herbaria of Jussieu, Lamarck, and Baillon at Paris, that of the DeCandolles at Geneva, and Willdenow at Berlin. For this purpose the Wallich collections at Kew were, in recent years, re-assembled as a separate unit. Except for the Herbarium in Paris, which was founded as early as 1635, other university or national herbaria were founded much later, e.g. that of the British Museum (Natural History) in 1753 (harbouring several famous herbals from Sloane, Petiver, etc.), Copenhagen in 1759, of the University of Cambridge in 1761, Uppsala in 1785, Berlin in 1815, Geneva in 1817 (now comprising the combined herbaria of Delessert and Boissier, and the separate herbarium of the DeCandolles), Petersburg (now Leningrad) in 1823, the Rijksherbarium at Brussels in 1829, and the Herbarium at Kew as late as 1853.