A brief introduction to the family Begoniaceae and genus Begonia is followed by an outline of the key morphological characters of begonias and a review of the sections (Diploclinium, Petermannia and Symbegonia) and species of the genus occurring in New Guinea. The essential characteristics of these sections are described and the range of habitats of begonias in New Guinea are briefly considered. Aspects of collecting begonias are discussed and some ways forward for future research on Begoniaceae in New Guinea are suggested.