This taxonomic revision includes all Ochnaceae from South and Southeast Asia, Malesia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. A much wider species concept is applied than in most previous works: 20 species in 10 genera are accepted for the area treated, whereas 199 specific synonyms are listed. A few taxa have been accepted at infra specific level among which Brackenridgea palustris ssp. kjellbergii Kanis is new. It is shown that some old specific names have been overlooked in the past and that the traditional concepts of some species have not been in accordance with the original concepts. All names, currently used for Asiatic species of Ochna L. and Gomphia Schreb. are no longer accepted here, O. jabotapita L. and G. serrata (Gaertn.) Kanis being the correct names for the respective type species. O. fascicularis Blanco is made the type of a distinct section Notochnella (v. Tiegh.) Kanis in the genus Brackenridgea A. Gray. A short history of the taxonomy is given and a partly new suprageneric subdivision of the Ochnaceae is subsequently proposed. Two subfamilies are recognised: the Ochnoideae comprising the tribes Ochneae and Elvasieae Rchb., and the Sauvagesoideae Lindl. including the tribes Sauvagesieae, Euthemideae Planch., and Lophireae Rchb. The Ochneae are newly subdivided in the subtribes Ochninae and Ouratinae (v. Tiegh.) Kanis, and the Sauvagesieae in the subtribes Sauvagesinae and Luxemburginae (Planch.) Kanis.* Some general remarks are made about morphological characters in the family, including some new characters of the pollen. An attempt is made towards a better understanding of the inflorescence types. It is assumed that the genera Ochna and Gomphia migrated from Africa into Asia. Other genera in Southeast Asia, Malesia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are regarded as long established, because of the more or less relict-like nature of their areas.