Cladistic analyses were undertaken of Anacardiaceae using non-sequence data (30 genera and 81 characters from morphology, anatomy, palynology and chemotaxonomy), sequence data (26 genera – rbcL) and a combined dataset of 16 genera. All analyses supported a group of genera which can be recognised at the subfamily level: Anacardioideae. Sequence data and combined datasets supported the recognition of a second subfamily: Spondiadioideae Kunth emend. Wannan. Both datasets also suggested that Buchanania lies outside both subfamily groups.