For many years the monotypical genus Aesandra was incorporated in Payena (vide Lam 1925, 1927) or Madhuca (Bassia sensu Lecomte, 1930). Revising the genus Payena we came across specimens, that did not fit in the diagnosis of either genus; it appeared that the specimens in question showed a mixture of the characters of both Payena and Madhuca, and also some characters of their own. These we found to belong to what has been described as Aesandra. The only species is A. dongnaiensis Pierre, 1890. It is our impression that Aesandra is to be maintained as a separate genus of the Madhuceae (cf. Lam, Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 36, 1939, 525). We examined material from the following herbaria: British Museum (Natural History) at London (BM), Rijksherbarium at Leiden (L) and Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Phanérogamie, at Paris (P) and are very much obliged to the authorities of these institutes for the loan of specimens and the hospitality enjoyed during our stay in 1955 at Paris and London.