Mischocarpus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 238, nom. cons.; Rumphia 3 (1849) 166; Radlk., Pfl. R. Heft 98 (1933) 1288—1310. — Cupania § Mischocarpus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. I, 2 (1859) 566. — Type: M. sundaicus Bl. Pedicellia Lour., Fl. Coch. (1790) 655, nom. rejic. (see under dubious names). — Type: P. oppositifolia Lour. Mischocodon Radlk., Bot. jahrb. 50 (1913) 79; Pfl. R. Heft 98 (1933) 1327—1328. — Type: M. reticulatus Radlk. Shrubs or, sometimes large, trees, sometimes with a slender unbranched stem. Buttresses sometimes present (M. largifolius). Indumentum rather dense to sometimes very sparse, consisting of mostly appressed, short to long, brownish to ferruginous hairs; no glandular scales. Twigs brownish to reddish-brown to greyish. Axillary buds just above or, mostly in ramiflorous species, up to 6 mm above the base of the petiole. Leaves spirally arranged, paripinnate, the leaflets accrescent in size towards the top, 1—6-jugate, without stipules; petiole ± semi-terete, sometimes dorsiventrally flattened. Leaflets alternate to subopposite, petioluled, ratio 1.5—5(—8), widest below, in, or above the middle, sometimes curved downwards (in the herbarium showing a folded base and apex and sometimes an undulate or folded margin), sometimes bullate, pergamentaceous to coriaceous, when dry above mostly greyish-green, sometimes smooth and shiny, beneath mostly brownish-green, not papillose, above glabrous or hairy on midrib and nerves, beneath glabrous or hairy mainly on midrib, nerves and along the margin, between the nerves very sparsely appressedly short-hairy, often glabrescent; domatia often present in axils of main nerves; base equalsided, rarely slightly oblique, rounded or acute to blunt, decurrent; margin entire, flat or sometimes revolute; apex rounded or acute to blunt, mostly shortly mucronate, or ± acuminate or retuse or rarely emarginate; acumen rounded or acute, mostly slightly retuse; midrib above prominent to sunken, rounded or angular, sometimes carinate, beneath prominent, in cross-section about semi-circular, sometimes nearly completely circular ( M. grandissimus), slightly angular to the base; nerves not or sometimes indistinctly connected in the lower 0.5—0.75, in the upper part connected, about straight to rather strongly curved; intercalated veins present, sometimes indistinct; veins and veinlets nearly always forming a very regular reticulate pattern, dense; nerves, veins, and veinlets ± prominent on both faces, beneath stronger so than above, veinlets inconspicuous beneath. Inflorescences pseudoterminal, axillary, and ramiflorous (probably also cauliflorous in a few species), composed of one or more thyrsoid axes, these nearly always branched, erect to spreading, mostly slightly grooved, with stalked or sometimes sessile cymules, glabrous to densely hairy; cymules 1—7(—10)-flowered; pedicels 1—3(—5) mm; bracts triangular to lanceolate, sometimes subulate, outside glabrous or hairy, inside mostly glabrous. Flowers unisexual, probably mostly monoecious (dioecious in M. reticulatus?). Calyx spreading or cup-shaped, early expanding, 5 (rarely 6)-merous, connate for up to 65%, membranaceous to subcoriaceous, sometimes somewhat fleshy; lobes subequal, sometimes slightly imbricate at the base, triangular to ovate, outside variably hairy, inside glabrous or hairy, often only a row of hairs near the base sometimes hidden by the disk; apex acute, sometimes acuminate. Petals 0—5, from minute up to slightly longer than the calyx, apert, unguiculate or not, variably hairy, mostly on claw, base of plate, and auricles; plate elliptic to ovate, sometimes triangular or rhomboid; apex sometimes lobed; 2 auricles or scales mostly present, without crest. Disk complete or sometimes interrupted, annular or cup-shaped, sometimes surrounding base of stamens and confluent with pistil, glabrous or short-hairy. Stamens (5—)8(—9), exserted (sometimes rather long); filament thread-like, glabrous or appressedly to patent-hairy, more densely so to the base; anther basifixed, base and apex emarginate; connective sometimes with a lighter coloured wart at the top; thecae about ellipsoid, glabrous or sparsely hairy, smooth or papillose (most distinct when not yet exserted), dehiscence lateral or latero-introrse. Pistil 3-(rarely 2- or 4-) celled, glabrous or appressedly short-bairy; ovary stiped or almost sessile, about ellipsoid- to obovoid-triangular; style apical, shorter to slightly longer than ovary, the upper part either split in 3 ± recurved stigmatic lobes or almost undivided, bearing 3 stigmatic lines (M. exangulatus); ovules 1 per cell, apotropous, anatropous, ascending, base collar-like, surrounding micropyle and funiculus. Pistillode small, densely hairy to subglabrous. Infructescences sometimes with accrescent axes and pedicels; calyx present, sometimes accrescent, mostly glabrescent; disk present, not accrescent. Fruit nearly always distinctly stiped (in M. paradoxus only up to 1 mm), not lobed, the cells about equally developed but the ovules abortive in (1) 2 cells, loculicidal, up to 3.5 cm long, reddish when ripe, glabrous or hairy; stipe empty, 3-celled, cylindrical near the base, distally becoming triangular; seed bearing part triangular to rounded in cross-section, with elliptic to obovate valves, apiculate; valves thin to almost woody, mostly shrivelled after dehiscence; pericarp slightly fleshy; endocarp sclerenchymatic, either complete, lining valves (except for M. exangulatus also lining stipe) and distal parts of the septa, or incomplete, only along the sutures (see fig. 1g and 1h); septa membranaceous, at least in the proximal half; endocarp and septa glabrous or variably hairy. Seed sometimes pendulous by the appendix of the arillode, globose to ellipsoid; hilum adaxial, basal; testa shining, chestnutbrown, finally (nearly) completely covered by a thin-fleshy, translucent, bluish or yellow to orange arillode which is attached around hilum and micropyle; arillode nearly always (except M. paradoxus) with an appendix abaxial of the hilum and micropyle, descending into the stipe; cotyledons equal or not, folded or not; suture between cotyledons either transverse and straight, or curved (see fig. 1e and 1f). Plumule glabrous or variably hairy (not constant within one species).