One of the major scientific efforts of the decade has been the International Indian Ocean Expedition of 1960—64, involving several institutions and ships and numerous scientists. With an oceanographic focus, not only physical and biological open sea oceanographic studies were carried on, but littoral and sublittoral work as well, on shores and reefs. Geographically, too, the range was wide, and respecting algae particularly so, though predominately western. The chief algal collectors were Professors G. F. Papenfuss (University of California, Berkeley) and R. F. Scagel (University of British Columbia). Papenfuss joined the Israel South Red Sea Expedition prior to sharing in the Indian Ocean Expedition, and Scagel joined him to work on the African east coast and off-lying islands, continuing south to Cape Town. The Red Sea Caulerpas will be reported elsewhere by myself, and those from South Africa by Papenfuss. To a few Australian collections from Scagel are added a few more from Singapore and elsewhere by Dr. L. H. Colinvaux (Ohio State University) and Professor R. E. Norris (University of Washington). Materials from Papenfuss and Scagel reached me in generous measure directly from the collectors; material from the others came by courtesy of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, and to all these sources I am much indebted for the materials and for information of various kinds.