Melaleuca Linn., Mant. 1 (1767) 14 (nom. cons), and Callistemon R. Br., App. Flind. Voy. 2: App. 3 (1814) 547, are centred in Australia where they are represented by about 180 and 40 species respectively, including the type species of both genera. Six of the Melaleucas extend to New Guinea and one of these continues to south east Asia. In New Caledonia there are three species of Melaleuca: one a common tree forming an open woodland at lower elevations mostly in non-ultrabasic areas (M. quinquenervia – ‘Niaouli’. Also in east Australia and New Guinea); the others small-leaved shrubs at low to middle elevations in the southern ultrabasic region (M. gnidioides, M. brongniartii). Callistemon is represented by four species, of which three are shrubs to small trees restricted to low to middle elevation shrub associations in the southern ultrabasic area (C pancheri. C. buseanum, C. suberosum) and the fourth (C. gnidioides), a small-leaved shrub with two varieties, also occurs on some of the northern ultrabasic areas as well as in the south.