This study comprises a taxonomic revision of Rhysotoechia (Sapindaceae) preceded by a phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen species are recognised and three imperfectly known species are discussed. Five new species from New Guinea are described. Two species from the Philippines, Borneo and one species from Australia are reduced. There are no excluded species. A key, based on both flower and fruit characteristics, gives access to the species. The study was restricted to the macromorphological characters, leading to a data matrix with 25 characters. The cladistic analysis was run with the computerprogram HENNIG86. Eventually one cladogram has been accepted.