A comprehensive study of floral and vegetative anatomy of the monotypic New Caledonian genus Paracryphia Baker was initiated in an attempt to help clarify the evolutionary relationships of the genus. Detailed descriptions of leaf, axis, nodal, wood, floral, pollen, and fruit morphology and anatomy are presented. In general, most vegetative characters are distinctly primitive whereas those of the reproductive organs are regarded as advanced or specialized. The present study confirms the opinion that Paracryphia merits familial status. All previously suggested relationships of the genus are rejected in favor of a view that envisions Paracryphia as an independent and early divergence from the Thealean, Ericalean, and/or Celastralean lines of evolution. This view is based on similarities of Paracryphia with Sphenostemonaceae, Actinidiaceae and Theaceae in a number of characters.