This article presents a taxonomic revision of the genus Pholidota (9 sections, 29 species, 7 varieties). Acanthoglossum is reduced to section level, section Repentes is newly described. One species (P. mediocris) is described new. 3 species names are reduced to variety level (P. camelostalix var. vaginata, P. carnea var. parviflora, P. carnea var. pumila). 28 species names and 8 variety names are for the first time reduced to synonymy. Keys are provided to the sections, species and varieties. Synonymy, description, distribution, habitat notes, colour descriptions and detailed illustrations are given for each species and variety.