A few years ago a new and interesting mammal, which is exceedingly rare, even in its native haunts, was brought to the then Resident of Palembang, Mr. A. Pruys van der Hoeven. This gentleman who is not only an eager sportsman, but also well-versed in natural history, recognised it to be new to science and to be more closely allied to certain representatives of the Edentata, than to any other order of mammals. — The type-specimen was held in captivity for several weeks, was fed on ants and afterwards on cooked rice and was sent alive to Europe in order to be examined, described and ultimately preserved in the Royal Museum at Leyden. It unfortunately died on board the vessel, on its way to Holland, and by an unaccountable blunder on the part of one of those in charge, its remains were not preserved, but thrown overboard. During my own stay in Sumatra from February till May 1891 I took particular trouble to obtain further information concerning this animal and have found the fact of its existence — though at the same time of its exceeding rarity! — confirmed in a way which does not allow me to doubt that ere long further specimens will be available for a thorough examination, also with respect to anatomical detail. My own attempts to secure a second specimen have as yet not been successful, but as they have turned the attention of many persons towards this animal I feel bound, in deference to the claims to priority of its original discoverer, who has put his preliminary description as well as sketches of the animal at my disposal, to introduce this peculiar mammal into science, notwithstanding the type-specimen has been lost. The generic name has been selected, not with a view of indicating any closer anatomical relation with the genus Manis, but only to indicate that a hairy anteater is meant.