Since more than a century the »Diana” has become such a well known Monkey that every child can show it you in every Zoological Garden. Therefore it may be called somewhat hazardously to move the supposition that — although it seems to be so familiar an animal to children — it has always been misunderstood by naturalists and scientific authors. In our collection there are 9 specimens (among them 2 from the Gold-coast and 4 from Liberia) all labeled Cercopithecus diana. Some weeks ago Mr. Oscar Neumann, the excellent German Africa-traveller, told me that he had observed some differences between our Liberia- and Gold-coast-specimens, differences sufficiently striking to regard upon them as two distinct species. I now have studied the thing and believe to be able to explain the question exactly.