A taxonomic revision of the orchid genus Oberonia Lindley for India with 41 species is presented. Two new species, O. balakrishnanii and O. nayarii are established. Oberonia bisaccata and O. rangannaiana are considered conspecific with O. platycaulon and O. chandrasekharanii respectively. Oberonia acaulis and O. myriantha, which were treated as synonymous to each other by earlier workers, are now proved to be distinct species based on detailed study of the column. The species are grouped under six sections after modifying the classification proposed by Seidenfaden (1968) to suit the Indian plants. Dichotomous keys are provided for all taxa. The geographical distribution of each section within the country is discussed. All species are illustrated.