The present paper deals with some gomphids from South America. Besides descriptions of a number of new species additional notes on several Selysian and other, little-known species, elucidated with illustrations of important details, are offered in order to obtain a better insight into the characteristics of these dragonflies. Lectotypes are selected and confusions in respect to the generic or specific status of some species are unraveled. Of nearly all the gomphids from Surinam the larval stages are described or discussed. The identity of several larvae is ascertained by the actual rearing of some individuals. The discovery of two new Agriogomphine species resulted in a classification of the members of the Agriogomphus complex into two genera only instead of four. Undoubtedly of greater importance is the attempt to acquire a satisfactory division of the large genus Gomphoides sensu Selysi 1854. In doing so, the erection of a new genus was necessary. The material from Surinam here recorded has been assembled in the first instance by the author himself during a period of ten years of odonatological research carried out in that country (1955—1965), but a comprehensive and very valuable part is from Dr. D. C. GEIJSKES. I would like to express here my thanks for his consent to describe his gomphid material. This privilege enabled me to clear up several intriguing problems on the regional gomphid fauna.