Two small but interesting collections of octocorals from the northeastern coast of South America have recently come into my hands through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, one of them from a survey conducted by the Government of Surinam, the other from exploratory work of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The first was obtained off the coast of Surinam by Mr. J. C. HIGMAN, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service observer aboard the motor vessel “Coquette” during the course of exploratory shrimp investigations. The second was obtained between Trinidad and the Amazon River, Brazil, through the efforts of Dr. GILES W. MEAD during the course of cruise 47 of the exploratory vessel “Oregon.” Because there is so little information available dealing with the fauna of the northeastern coast of South America, it seems desirable to make known the records of Octocorallia taken by the “Coquette” and the “Oregon” along this extensive and little known coast, together with a list of the species already reported in the literature. The four new species contained in the present material are described and figured in full, and figures of the spicules of the known species are given in support of the identifications set forth.