This paper is the first contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater sponges of Suriname. Four species have been identified up till now: Metania spinata (Carter, 1881), Trochospongilla paulula (Bowerbank, 1863), Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882), and Drulia uruguayensis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1969. Since in most instances slides were the only available source of data, details on external structure cannot be supplied. The author is indebted to Dr. D. C. GEIJSKES of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, who kindly provided a great deal of the material for study, as well as to Dr. W. VERVOORT, Leiden, and to Drs. P. LEENTVAAR, R.I.N., Leersum, who also sent specimens. The author also acknowledges the authorities and members of the staff of the Invertebrates Department of the British Museum. Special thanks are due to Miss SHIRLEY STONE who facilitated the study of South American material, and to Prof. J. BENOIT, Invertebrates Department of the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, who provided African material of great interest.