This paper records the occurrence and distribution of ascidians in two contrasting salt water lagoons in the Netherlands Antilles, Piscadera Baai in Curaçao and Lac in Bonaire. The paper is based on material collected by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during several collecting trips to the West Indies, but particularly in 1963, 1967 and 1973. The taxonomy of West Indian Ascidiacea is well known, largely due to the work of VAN NAME (1902, 1921, 1924, 1930, 1945), and previous discussion of ascidians in the Netherlands Antilles is to be found in VAN NAME (1924), MILLAR (1962) and VAN DER SLOOT (1969). More recently CLAUDE MONNIOT (1983a-c) and FRANÇOISE MONNIOT (1983a-c) have published papers describing the ascidian fauna of Guadeloupe. For this reason and since, apart from the Didemnidae, no taxonomic problems arise with the present collections, I have avoided taxonomic description of the animals; the reader is referred particularly to VAN NAME (1945) for detailed descriptions. Unless otherwise indicated in the text the nomenclature used follows that of VAN NAME (1945).