The material on which the present paper is based consists of a small number of Streptaxidae collected by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the Caribbean Islands and the mainland of Venezuela since 1930, and further of some specimens which, at various times, have reached the author through the generosity of Mr. SERGIO ARIAS, Caracas, Dr. G. MARCUZZI, Padova, Professor S. JAECKEL, Berlin, and Mr. TJOA TJIEN MO, Bogor. Besides this material I also investigated some material present in the following collections and kindly put at my disposal: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel; Zoologisches Staatsinstitut und Museum, Hamburg; British Museum (N.H.), London; American Museum of Natural History, New York; United States National Museum, Washington. I have to thank for their kind assistance: Dr. L. FORCART, Basel; Professor G. WEIDNER and Dr. P. KAISER, Hamburg; Dr. W. J. REES and Dr. GALBRAITH, London; Miss D. E. BLISS, New York; Dr. H. A. REHDER, Washington; and last but not least the late Mr. HUGH WATSON, Cambridge, England, for his most valuable and expert advice. I am also greatly obliged to Mr. PAUL KESSELS, Tilburg, Netherlands, for his help in composing the histograms.