Deep-water sponges dredged up in two locations off the west coast of Barbados are systematically described. A total of 69 species is recorded, among which 16 are new to science, viz. Pachymatisma geodiformis, Asteropus syringiferus, Cinachyra arenosa, Theonella atlantica. Corallistes paratypus, Corallistes tubulatus, Scleritoderma cyanea, Spongosorites silquariae, ?Halichondria ruetzleri, Leucophloeus lewisi, Acanthella vaceleti, Bubaris flagelliformis, Biemna oxeata, Phlyctaenopora halichondrioides, Echinochalina melana, Strongylophora stoneae. Of each species illustrations of the habit and/or the skeletal architecture and spiculation are provided. A review of West Indian deep water sponges is given in the form of tables of records of deep water sponges arranged according to the major higher taxa. A special report is given of the distribution of the quantitatively important sponges in a transect perpendicular to the coast off Paynes Bay from 110 to 325 m. Along this depth gradient it was possible to distinguish three distinct zones: an upper (110-137 m) zone poor in specimens, with Spongosorites siliquaria n.sp. and Topsentia porrecta as characteristic species, a zone from 137-172 m rich in species and numbers, and a third zone below 208 m in which Vetulina stalactites is the dominant sponge. These three zones may be related to the morphology of the sea bottom and the grain size of the sediment.