Het ontstaan van het Diëngplateau
Leidse Geologische Mededelingen , Volume 3 - Issue 1 p. 131- 149
The results may be summarized as follows: 1. According to Junghuhn and Verbeek the Diëngplateau is the floor of a large caldera, on which the younger volcanoes as G. Pangonan, G. Sipandoe and G. Pakoewadja have been formed. Nothing confirming this theory was found on the spot. 2. On the contrary the supposed large caldera wall was found to consist of separate points of eruption. To the oldest belong the G. Praoe, G. Sidede and G. Bisma, after which the G. Srodja, followed by the G. Sipandoe and G. Pangonan, the terminal craters of the G. Srodja (5—7) and No. 3 of the G. Bisma and finally the Pakoewadja-Kendel mountains were formed. For a fuller account of the often complex history of the various volcanic centres we must refer the reader to the map fig. 8 and the foregoing pages. The „Maaren”: T. Mendjer, T. Warna-Pengilon, T. Teroes and T. Merdada are the largest and finest examples of the many explosion craters. The most striking example of smaller explosion craters occurs to the east of the G. Pangonan as a straight line in a north-south direction developed as an open fissure between T. Loewoek and T. Teroes. The G. Koenir is a lavadome, and probably the G. Prambanan belongs to the same type. 3. The G. Praoe, G. Sipandoe, G. Pangonan and G. Kendil in joining together encircled a basin that had no outlet, in which the water and erosion products of the surrounding slopes collected — at a later stage peat was also formed. The overflow led to the south by the Kali Toelis. Finally a part of this lake was thus converted into dry land, the present Diëngplateau. In a similar manner the T. Tjebong was formed. The G. Srodja, G. Koenir, G. Pakoewadja and the eruption point No. 12 are grouped in such a manner, that they surround a cup-shaped space with no outlet. 4. After the Hindu civilization had disappeared from Java and the ancient city on the Diëngplateau was deserted, the artificial drainage channel, the Gangsiran Swatama, fell into disrepair and became partly choked up by silt. The water level, that had been artificially depressed by the Hindu’s was thus able to rise to its present height.
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Umbgrove, J. H. F. (1928). Het ontstaan van het Diëngplateau. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen, 3(1), 131–149.