The construction of block diagrams is a very lengthy procedure if use be not made of one of the apparatuses described in Lit. 1 and 3. The non-mechanical construction can be effected in various ways: 1. By constructing a large number of parallel profiles, which are drawn usually in isometric projection where the length in the direction of the profiles, the distance between them, and the vertical scale remain similar. Cf. fig. 1a and 1c (the vertical scale of fig. 1c is increased to twice its size).