In this paper an attempt is made to give a general survey of our present knowledge about the relations between distribution patterns and diversity chiefly based on chaetognaths. Six main Zoogeographic patterns are distinguished, viz. cosmopolitan, 40° N to 40° S circumglobal, 30° N to 30° S, biantitropical, circumpolar, and neritic; their relation with holoplankton diversity is discussed. Generally the more limited the distribution of a holoplanktonic species, the less infraspecific variation is observed. The most common pattern is the circumglobal from 40° N to 40° S. No obvious relations between distribution patterns and taxonomic categories could be traced.